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Co-Cure Weekly Digest of research and medical posts only - 29 Jan 2007 to 5 Feb 2007

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Date:    Tue, 30 Jan 2007 15:08:07 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Computerized cuff pressure algometry: A new method to  assess deep-tissue hypersensitivity in fibromyalgia

Computerized cuff pressure algometry: A new method to assess deep-tissue
hypersensitivity in fibromyalgia.

Pain. 2007 Jan 24; [Epub ahead of print]

Jespersen A, Dreyer L, Kendall S, Graven-Nielsen T, Arendt-Nielsen L,
liddal H, Danneskiold-Samsoe B.

The Parker Institute, Frederiksberg Hospital, Nordre Fasanvej 57, DK-2000
Frederiksberg, Denmark.

PMID: 17257757


The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of computerized cuff pressure
algometry (CPA) in fibromyalgia (FM) and to correlate deep-tissue
sensitivity assessed by CPA with other disease markers of FM.

Forty-eight women with FM and 16 healthy age-matched women were included. A
computer-controlled, pneumatic tourniquet cuff was placed over the
gastrocnemius muscle. The cuff was inflated, and the subject rated the pain
intensity continuously on an electronic Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). The
subject stopped the inflation at the pressure-pain tolerance and the
corresponding VAS-score was determined (pressure-pain limit). The pressure
at which VAS firstly exceeded 0 was defined as the pressure-pain threshold.
Other disease markers (FM only): Isokinetic knee muscle strength,
tenderpoint-count, myalgic score, Beck Depression Inventory, and
Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire. Student's T-test was used to compare
pressure-pain threshold and pressure-pain tolerance and the Mann-Whitney
test to compare pressure-pain limit. Pearson's correlation was used to
detect linear relationships.

Pressure-pain threshold and pressure-pain tolerance assessed by CPA were
significantly lower in FM compared to healthy controls. There was no
difference in pressure-pain limit. CPA-parameters were significantly
correlated to isokinetic muscle strength where more hypersensitivity
resulted in lower strength.

Pressure-pain threshold and pressure-pain tolerance assessed by CPA were
significantly lower in patients with FM indicating muscle hyperalgesia. CPA
was associated with knee muscle strength but not with measures thought to
be influenced by psychological distress and mood.

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Date:    Tue, 30 Jan 2007 17:07:49 -0500
From:    "Alan Gurwitt, M.D. <agurcp verizon.net> via Co-Cure Moderator"
Subject: RES: Unreliable findings of depression in CFS


Apparently it is necessary to remind ourselves of the following: Any
report of research data that refers to finding the presence of
depression and/or increased anxiety in CFS patients that does not make
clear whether those symptoms are pre-illness or post-illness onset
findings is seriously flawed.

The occurrence of depression and anxiety after onset is common and is
both reactive (that is, a psychological consequence of having such a
dreadful medical illness) and biological (as evidenced by new brain
imaging techniques). Furthermore the depression in post-onset CFS is
different from the major depressive disorder in non-CFS patients.
The failure to distinguish between the two, easily done, has plagued
research conclusions and led to highly biased findings and attitudes
in the past. Failure to make such distinction, although less common now,
continues to plague us. It is totally unacceptable.


Alan Gurwitt, M.D.

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Date:    Wed, 31 Jan 2007 11:52:00 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Possible joint origin of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and  migraine

Possible joint origin of restless leg syndrome (RLS) and migraine.

Med Hypotheses. 2007 Jan 25; [Epub ahead of print]

Sabayan B, Bagheri M, Borhani Haghighi A.

Student Research Committee, Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical
Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

PMID: 17258401


Sleep disorders have been described in migraine patients. Among sleep
disorders RLS has been reported in up to one-third of migraineurs. Adverse
effects of anti migraine therapy by dopamine antagonists can not fully
explain this association.

Therefore we present the hypothesis that RLS and migraine may have a joint
origin. The hypothesis is supported by:

(1) the same genetic origin for migraine without aura and RLS in single
Italian family on chromosome 14q21; this gene codes survival motor
neuron-interacting protein 1 (SIP1) which can play role in both diseases.

(2) Correlation of both RLS and migraine with fibromyalgia.

(3) Alteration of cortical excitability in both migraine and RLS.

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Date:    Wed, 31 Jan 2007 11:51:13 -0500
From:    Fred Springfield <fredspringfield VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Diagnosis and treatment of metal-induced side-effects

Diagnosis and treatment of metal-induced side-effects.

Journal: Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006 Dec 29;27(Suppl1) [Epub ahead of print]

Authors: Stejskal VD, Hudecek R, Stejskal J, Sterzl I.

Affiliation: Department of Immunology and Microbiology, 1st Medical
Faculty, Charles University Prague, Czech Republic.

NLM Citation: PMID: 17261999


Environmental factors are recognized as a cause of the increasing frequency
of allergic and autoimmune diseases. In addition to external pollutants,
metal ions released from dental restorations or from other body implants
might trigger inflammation in susceptible subjects. In humans, genes
governing metal-induced inflammation/autoimmunity are not yet known.

In clinical praxis, metal-sensitive patients will present various symptoms
raging from oral mucosal changes and skin disease to excessive fatigue and
autoimmune diseases. One has to rely on the phenotypic markers of metal
susceptibility. Such biomarkers might be certain detoxification enzymes but
also the presence of metal-specific memory cells in the blood. With the
increasing use of metal implants in medicine and dentistry, it is important
to have a proper tool for the diagnosis of metal allergy in susceptible
subjects. After nickel, gold is now the second most common sensitizer.

Depending on the genetic phenotype, metal-sensitive patients will present
symptoms ranging from contact allergy to autoimmune disease and chronic
fatigue syndrome (CFS). In addition to patch test, an in vitro blood test,
an optimized commercially available lymphocyte transformation test
(MELISA(R)) is used in this study for the diagnosis of metal allergy. Both
tests were used for the diagnosis of metal allergy in selected group of 17
patients who suffered from clinical metal sensitivity in addition to other
health problems. The concordance of the two tests was good but LTT detected
more metal allergies than patch test. The replacement of incompatible
dental restorative metals (RID) resulted in long term health improvement in
the majority of patients.

We postulate that in vivo metal ions will activate T-cells starting
systemic inflammation which, through cytokines affect the brain and
hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The treatment and rehabilitation
of metal sensitive patients is based on a firm understanding and
recognition of individual susceptibility. RID has to be done under strict
precaution and according to standard working protocol. If performed
properly, this treatment can result in decreased systemic inflammation and
improved health in sensitized patients.

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Date:    Wed, 31 Jan 2007 15:28:21 -0800
From:    "Rich Van Konynenburg.................via Co-Cure moderators"
Subject: RES: cancer breakthough

moderator's note: although this is off-topic for Co-Cure, it may be of
interest to patients.

It was sent by a frequent contributor, Rich Van Konynenburg, Ph.D.

Any questions, replies or comments should go to him at richvank@AOL.COM

--------------------

I want to let you know about what appears to me to be a major
breakthrough in research on cancer treatment.  I'm not selling
anything, and I was not involved with the research, but I think it's
very exciting!  I hope you won't think I've parted company with my
sanity when I tell you this.

I'm referring to work recently published by researchers at the
University of Alberta in Canada.  The full paper can be found at the
following site:

http://www.depmed.ualberta.ca/dca/cancer_cell.pdf

I'm not exaggerating when I call this a major breakthrough.

Briefly, these researchers have found that a relatively simple,
non-patentable substance, namely dichloroacetate, which has been used
in the past to control lactic acidosis in children with mitochondrial
disease, is able to knock out a variety of types of cancer cells
without causing systemic problems.  They have demonstrated this by
experiments in three types of human cancer cell cultures and in mice.

This substance works by blocking the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase
kinase, causing pyruvate to be converted to acetyl Co-A and be fed into
the Krebs cycle, instead of being reduced to lactic acid as normally
occurs in cancer cells, and thus forcing the cancer cells to change
their metabolism from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation, like
normal cells.  As a result of this change, they are able to cause these
cells to undergo apoptosis and die, rather than being immortal as
cancer cells are.  In the mice, they put this substance in their
driinkinig water, and they began to see effects on their cancer within
one week!

Because it operates on a feature that is common to all cancer cells (as
shown by Otto Warburg in 1930, for which he won the Nobel prize), this
substance promises to be a universal treatment for all types of cancers.

Because it is nonpatentable, it should be relatively inexpensive.  This
also means that non-pharma money will have to be found for the phase II
and III clinical trials, and they've started a fund for that.  Because
there is already a history of using this substance in humans to treat
lactic acidosis in mitochondrial disease, it is already known that the
side effects are mnimal.

I am fairly familiar with the biochemistry of the intermediary
metabolism, and I can tell you that the paper looks good to me.  I
would invite comments from others on this.  If this is what it looks
like to me, the ramifications are huge to society, the economy, the
cancer industry, and to all of us as individuals.  I think this will
make it even more imperative that we figure out what to do for
Alzheimer's, because the average life expectancy is going to jump.
When futurists used to talk about the possibility of "a cure for
cancer" being found, I always thought they were nuts!  I don't think so
anymore.

Rich Van Konynenburg, Ph.D.

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Date:    Fri, 2 Feb 2007 12:14:18 -0500
From:    Fred Springfield <fredspringfield VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Hypocapnia is a biological marker for orthostatic  intolerance in some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome

Hypocapnia is a biological marker for orthostatic intolerance in some patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

Journal: Dyn Med. 2007 Jan 30;6(1):2 [Epub ahead of print]

Authors: Natelson BH, Intriligator R, Cherniack NS, Chandler HK, Stewart JM.

NLM Citation: PMID: 17263876

ABSTRACT:
Context: Patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and those with orthostatic intolerance share many symptoms, yet questions exist as to whether CFS patients have physiological evidence of orthostatic intolerance.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if some CFS patients have increased rates of orthostatic hypotension, hypertension, tachycardia, or hypocapnia relative to age-matched controls.

DESIGN: Assess blood pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate, end tidal CO2 and visual analog scales for orthostatic symptoms when supine and when standing for 8 minutes without moving legs.

Setting: Referral practice and research center.

Participants: 60 women and 15 men with CFS and 36 women and 4 men serving as age matched controls with analyses confined to 62 patients and 35 controls showing either normal orthostatic testing or a physiological abnormal test.

Main Outcome Measures: Orthostatic tachycardia; orthostatic hypotension; orthostatic hypertension; orthostatic hypocapnia or combinations thereof.

RESULTS: CFS patients had higher rates of abnormal tests than controls (53% vs 20%, p < .002), but rates of orthostatic tachycardia, orthostatic hypotension, and orthostatic hypertension did not differ significantly between patients and controls (11.3% vs 5.7%, 6.5% vs 2.9%, 19.4% vs 11.4%, respectively). In contrast, rates of orthostatic hypocapnia were significantly higher in CFS than in controls (20.6% vs 2.9%, p < .02). This CFS group reported significantly more feelings of illness and shortness of breath than either controls or CFS patients with normal physiological tests.

CONCLUSIONS: A substantial number of CFS patients have orthostatic intolerance in the form of orthostatic hypocapnia. This allows subgrouping of patients with CFS and thus reduces patient pool heterogeneity engendered by use of a clinical case definition.


[Note: This is an Open Access article.  The provisional PDF is
available free of charge at
http://www.dynamic-med.com/content/pdf/1476-5918-6-2.pdf The fully
formatted version will be available within a few weeks.]

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Date:    Fri, 2 Feb 2007 15:17:55 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: The frequency and characteristics of chronic widespread  pain in general practice: a case-control study

The frequency and characteristics of chronic widespread pain in general
practice: a case-control study.

Br J Gen Pract. 2007 Feb;57(535):109-15.

Rohrbeck J, Jordan K, Croft P.

Primary Care Musculoskeletal Research Centre, Keele University, Keele.

PMID: 17263927


BACKGROUND: Chronic widespread pain is common in the community but is not
often diagnosed in primary care. One explanation may be that widespread
pain is presented and treated in primary care as multiple episodes of
regional pain.

AIM: To determine whether patients who consult with multiple regional pain
syndromes have characteristics consistent with chronic widespread pain.
Design of study: Case-control study.

SETTING: One general practice in North Staffordshire, UK.

METHOD: Participants were 148 cases who consulted regularly with different
musculoskeletal pains over 5 years, and 524 controls who had not consulted
for musculoskeletal pain during the same period. A postal questionnaire
survey and medical record review were undertaken.

RESULTS: Cases with musculoskeletal pain reported more health problems and
higher levels of fatigue than controls, and significantly worse general
health and greater sleep disturbance (odds ratios 3.3. and 3.1,
respectively). They generally reported more severe symptoms and consulted
more frequently for a range of problems, but this was not explained by a
general propensity to consult.

CONCLUSION: Patients who consult in primary care with multiple regional
pain syndromes have similar characteristics to those associated with
chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia. Recognising the need for general
approaches to pain management, rather than treating each syndrome as a
regional problem of pain, may improve the outcome in such patients.

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Date:    Sat, 3 Feb 2007 15:20:09 -0500
From:    Fred Springfield <fredspringfield VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Continuous measurement of BRSI in chronic fatigue syndrome

[This is dated, but it just hit PubMed.]

Continuous measurement of BRSI in chronic fatigue syndrome.

Journal: Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004;2:906-8

Authors: Donnelly D, Rockland RH, Reisman S, Quigley KS.

Affiliation: New Jersey Inst. of Technol., Newark, NJ, USA.

NLM Citation: PMID: 17271825


This paper discusses the development of a system to measure continuous
cardiac baroreceptor measurement during a 45-minute 70-degree head-up tilt
(HUT) of five groups of subjects suffering the following: chronic fatigue
syndrome (CFS), CFS with fibromyalgia (CFS-FM), CFS with postural
orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (CFS-POTS), controls with POTS (CON-POTS),
and controls (CON).

The duration of the test was 56-minutes, which included a five-minute
supine baseline, a 45-minute HUT and a six-minute recovery period.

The system was developed in LabView, and can provide a comparative time
analyses of weighted BRSI averages. Baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI)
was also investigated over the course of lags 0, 1 and 2 as well as an
assessment of overall BEI performance between groups.

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Date:    Sat, 3 Feb 2007 20:24:18 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Use of complementary and alternative medicine providers  by fibromyalgia patients under insurance coverage

Use of complementary and alternative medicine providers by fibromyalgia
patients under insurance coverage.

Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jan 31;57(1):71-76 [Epub ahead of print]

Lind BK, Lafferty WE, Tyree PT, Diehr PK, Grembowski DE.

University of Washington, Seattle, and Boise State University, Boise, Idaho.

PMID: 17266066


OBJECTIVE: To quantify how visits and expenditures differ between insured
patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) who visit complementary and
alternative medicine (CAM) providers compared with patients with FMS who do
not. Patients with FMS were also compared with an age- and sex-matched
comparison group without FMS.

METHODS: Calendar year 2002 claims data from 2 large insurers in Washington
state were analyzed for provider type (CAM versus conventional), patient
comorbid medical conditions, number of visits, and expenditures.

RESULTS: Use of CAM by patients with FMS was 2.5 times higher than in the
comparison group without FMS (56% versus 21%). Patients with FMS who used
CAM had more health care visits than patients with FMS not using CAM (34
versus 23; P < 0.001); however, CAM users had similar expenditures to
nonusers among patients with FMS ($4,638 versus $4,728; not significant),
because expenditure per CAM visit is lower than expenditure per
conventional visit. Patients with FMS who used CAM also had heavier overall
disease burdens than those not using CAM.

CONCLUSION: With insurance coverage, a majority of patients with FMS will
visit CAM providers. The sickest patients use more CAM, leading to an
increased number of health care visits. However, CAM use is not associated
with higher overall expenditures. Until a cure for FMS is found, CAM
providers may offer an economic alternative for patients with FMS seeking
symptomatic relief.

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Date:    Sat, 3 Feb 2007 20:28:26 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in  women with fibromyalgia: Results of a randomized clinical trial

Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with
fibromyalgia: Results of a randomized clinical trial.

Arthritis Rheum. 2007 Jan 31;57(1):77-85 [Epub ahead of print]

Sephton SE, Salmon P, Weissbecker I, Ulmer C, Floyd A, Hoover K, Studts JL.

University of Louisville and James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville,
Kentucky.

PMID: 17266067


OBJECTIVE: Depressive symptoms are common among patients with fibromyalgia,
and behavioral intervention has been recommended as a major treatment
component for this illness. The objective of this study was to test the
effects of the Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on
depressive symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia.

METHODS: This randomized controlled trial examined effects of the 8-week
MBSR intervention on depressive symptoms in 91 women with fibromyalgia who
were randomly assigned to treatment (n = 51) or a waiting-list control
group (n = 40). Eligible patients were at least 18 years old, willing to
participate in a weekly group, and able to provide physician verification
of a fibromyalgia diagnosis. Of 166 eligible participants who responded to
local television news publicizing, 49 did not appear for a scheduled
intake, 24 enrolled but did not provide baseline data, and 2 were excluded
due to severe mental illness, leaving 91 participants. The sample averaged
48 years of age and had 14.7 years of education. The typical participant
was white, married, and employed. Patients randomly assigned to treatment
received MBSR. Eight weekly 2.5-hour sessions were led by a licensed
clinical psychologist with mindfulness training. Somatic and cognitive
symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory
administered at baseline, immediately postprogram, and at followup 2 months
after the conclusion of the intervention.

RESULTS: Change in depressive symptoms was assessed using slopes analyses
of intervention effects over time. Depressive symptoms improved
significantly in treatment versus control participants over the 3 assessments.

CONCLUSION: This meditation-based intervention alleviated depressive
symptoms among patients with fibromyalgia.

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Date:    Sun, 4 Feb 2007 15:11:47 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Sleep disordered breathing concomitant with fibromyalgia syndrome

Sleep disordered breathing concomitant with fibromyalgia syndrome.
[Article in English, Portuguese]

J Bras Pneumol. 2006 Jul-Aug;32(4):333-8.

Germanowicz D, Lumertz MS, Martinez D, Margarites AF.

Federacao de Estabelecimento de Ensino Superior, Novo Hamburgo, Rio Grande
do Sul, Brazil. dienaro@globalmed.com.br

PMID: 17268733


OBJECTIVE: To identify fibromyalgia syndrome in patients with sleep
disordered breathing.

METHOD: We studied 50 patients seeking treatment at a sleep disorder clinic
for snoring, apnea and excessive daytime sleepiness. Sleep disordered
breathing was diagnosed through the use of polysomnography. To diagnose
fibromyalgia syndrome, patients were evaluated in accordance with the
criteria established by the American College of Rheumatology.

RESULTS: Of the 50 patients, 32 were male. The mean (+/- standard
deviation) age of the group was 50  12 years. The mean body mass index
was 29.7  5.6 kg/m(2). The mean apnea-hypopnea index was 36  29
attacks of apnea or hypopnea per hour of sleep. Of the 18 women and 32 men
evaluated, 9 and 2, respectively, met the American College of Rheumatology
criteria for fibromyalgia syndrome.

CONCLUSION: Considering the fact that the prevalence of fibromyalgia
syndrome in the general population is 0.5% for men and 3.4% for women, the
more than ten-fold higher proportion of fibromyalgia cases seen in this
sample supports the hypothesis that there is an association between sleep
disordered breathing and fibromyalgia syndrome.

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Date:    Sun, 4 Feb 2007 15:15:32 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Exploring the role of sleep and coping in quality of life in fibromyalgia

Exploring the role of sleep and coping in quality of life in fibromyalgia.

J Psychosom Res. 2007 Feb;62(2):145-51.

Theadom A, Cropley M, Humphrey KL.

Department of Clinical Health Psychology, Riverside Center, Hillingdon
Hospital, Middlesex, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, School of Human
Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, United Kingdom.

PMID: 17270572


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the effect of sleep
and coping on health-related quality of life in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS).

METHODS: Patients diagnosed with FMS (N=101) completed the Positive and
Negative Affect Schedule, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, the COPE, and
the Medical Outcomes Study-Short-Form Health Survey for the previous month.

RESULTS: Poor sleep quality was reported by 99% of participants. Sleep
quality was significantly predictive of pain, fatigue, and social
functioning in patients with FMS. Active coping, planning, acceptance, and
seeking instrumental and emotional social support were not predictive of
health outcomes in FMS. However, the use of restraint coping was predictive
of poorer physical functioning.

CONCLUSION: Sleep quality has significant implications for health-related
quality of life in FMS. The use of coping strategies contributed little to
the models' ability to predict health outcomes in FMS. Interventions
designed to improve sleep quality may help to improve health-related
quality of life for patients with FMS.

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Date:    Sun, 4 Feb 2007 15:18:45 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Beliefs about sleep in disorders characterized by sleep and mood disturbance

Beliefs about sleep in disorders characterized by sleep and mood disturbance.

J Psychosom Res. 2007 Feb;62(2):179-88.

Carney CE, Edinger JD, Manber R, Garson C, Segal ZV.

Duke Insomnia and Sleep Research Program, Duke University Medical Center,
Durham, NC, USA.

PMID: 17270576


OBJECTIVES: Maladaptive sleep beliefs play an important role in primary
insomnia, but their role in other disorders with concomitant sleep
disruption has rarely been explored. Thus, this study investigated the link
between insomnia and sleep beliefs in five groups (N=422): primary insomnia
(PI), good sleepers (GS), fibromyalgia (FM), major depressive disorder
(MDD), and Community Sleep Clinic patients with comorbid insomnia and mood
disturbance (CSC).

METHOD: Groups were compared on the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes
about Sleep (DBAS-16) scale.

RESULTS: Unlike the GS group, the MDD, FM, and CSC groups had elevated
DBAS-16 scores that were similar to, or more pathological than, those of
primary insomnia sufferers. Only some of the differences were removed after
controlling for depression.

CONCLUSION: Like primary insomnia patients, other sleep-disturbed patient
groups have problematic sleep beliefs. Depression was not sufficient to
account for all elevations in beliefs. The presence of maladaptive sleep
beliefs in these patients suggests that belief-targeted treatment might be
helpful in alleviating sleep complaints.

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Date:    Mon, 5 Feb 2007 12:20:05 -0500
From:    "Bernice A. Melsky" <bernicemelsky@VERIZON.NET>
Subject: RES: Myofascial trigger points in early life

Myofascial trigger points in early life.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2007 Feb;88(2):251-4.
Kao MJ, Han TI, Kuan TS, Hsieh YL, Su BH, Hong CZ.

Department of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, Taipei City Hospital,
Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, College of Medicine,
China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan.

PMID: 17270525


OBJECTIVE: To determine whether latent myofascial trigger points (MTPs) can
be identified in healthy infants and in healthy adult subjects. DESIGN:
Blind comparison. SETTING: Ambulatory.

PARTICIPANTS: A convenience sample of 60 healthy adults and 60 infants (age
range, 0-12mo).

INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: An algometer was used to measure the pressure pain
threshold (PPT) on 3 different sites, including a midpoint (assumed to be
the MTP site) in the brachioradialis muscle.

RESULTS: The mean PPT values at the MTP site were significantly lower than
the other sites in the adult muscles. However, no significant differences
in PPT values among these 3 sites were found in the infants. Taut bands
were found in all the adult muscles but none in the infants.

CONCLUSIONS: In the adult subjects, the midpoint of brachioradialis muscle
was significantly more irritable than other sites and the midpoint was
probably a latent MTP. However, in the infants younger than 1 year old,
such a phenomenon could not be observed in this study. It is very likely
that the latent MTPs might not exist in early life, but develop in later life.

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End of Co-Cure Weekly Digest of research and medical posts only - 29 Jan 2007 to 5 Feb 2007

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