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Posted to Co-Cure Wed, 2 Aug 2000 01:13:44 -0400 by Fred Springfield

Abnormal Signs Found in Animals of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients: A Look at 463 Animals

Abnormal Signs Found in Animals of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients: A Look at 463 Animals
Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2000, pp. 73-81
R. Tom Glass, DDS, PhD

ABSTRACT.
Objective: To evaluate the abnormal signs found in the domestic animals (pets) of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients.

Design: Retrospective study of the domestic animals (pets) of criteria-met ME/CFS patients using a standardized questionnaire which included patient comments.

Setting: University medical center and ME/CFS support groups throughout the United States.

Patients: A total of 127 patients met the surveillance criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the establishment of the diagnosis of ME/CFS and were included in the study. This group of patients had a total of 463 domestic animals (pets), of which 348 animals demonstrated abnormal signs and 115 were considered healthy.

Measurements: Information from the standardized questionnaire was compiled and appropriate statistical tests, including mean, median, Z test, multivariant analysis, and Chi-square test, were used.

Results: One hundred six (83%) of the 127 ME/CFS surveyed reported that at least one of their animals (predominantly domestic pets) showed a wide range of unusual or atypical signs, many of which mimicked the signs and symptoms of ME/CFS. The sick animalsí signs were divided into General (40%), Neurological (35%), Gastrointestinal (10%), Reticuloendothelial/Blood (9%), Neoplasia (4%), and Endocrine (2%).

One of the most striking result of the study was that 113 of the 127 ME/CFS patients surveyed felt their ME/CFS symptoms were somehow associated with their animals contact. Ninety (71%) of the 127 ME/CFS patients reported that they were the primary caretakers for multiple animals. Other less common findings were: the onset of ME/CFS being associated with obtaining the animal; the onset of ME/CFS being associated with a flea bite episode; prior residents having sick animals and ME/CFS; other family member contracting ME/CFS from their close association with the sick animal (as opposed to their association with the family members who had ME/CFS); ME/CFS symptoms decreasing after the pet leaving or dying.

Conclusions: A large number of animals of ME!CFS patients have atypical or unusual diseases which at least mimic ME/CFS. Most of the 127 ME/CFS patients surveyed have significant animal interactions.

KEYWORDS. Domestic animals, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome

INTRODUCTION

While anecdotal reports have often linked domestic animals with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), no formal scientific studies have been reported in the literature. In a recent study, Glass described the interaction between criteria diagnosed ME/CFS patients and their animals. In this study, ME/CFS patients had a significantly higher contact with animals than reported by the American Veterinary Medical Association (MEICFS = 96.8% contact/National Average = 57.9% contact) (4). This study also found that the number of dogs and cats owned by both male and female ME/CFS patients was significantly higher than reported by the American Veterinary Medical Association (Dogs: ME/CFS males = 9.5; ME/CFS females = 7.9; National Average = 1.52) (Cats: ME/CFS males = 6.1; ME/CFS females = 8.7; National Average = 1.95). Finally, this study found that 83% of the animals of ME/CFS patients showed signs which mimicked ME/CFS in humans. Ninety-four percent of these ME/CFS patients had either been the primary caregiver for the sick animals or had intimate contact (sleeping with, being bitten or scratched by, or kissing the animal).

[ Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: mailto:getinfo@haworthpressinc.com .]

______________________________

R. Tom Glass is Professor of Pathology arid Director of the Graduate Program in Forensic Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Oklahoma State University, and Professor Emeritus of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
Address correspondence to: Dr. R. Tom Glass, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Oklahoma State University, 1111 West 17th Street, Tulsa, OK 74107-1898.
The author wishes to acknowledge and thank all of those ME/CFS patients and their loved ones who have been so supportive of his research by contributing their stories, their time, their encouragement and their money. It is to all of these people that this article is dedicated.
Research funded by: The J. Dean Robertson Society, University of Oklahoma, Grant C5185801.

Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 6(2) 2000
© 2000 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Posted to Co-Cure Tue, 1 Aug 2000 21:24:35 -0400 by Fred Springfield

The Human/Animal Interaction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis / CFS

The Human/Animal Interaction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/ Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Look at 127 Patients
Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2000, pp. 65-72
R. Tom Glass, DDS, PhD

ABSTRACT.
Objective: To evaluate the interaction between Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) patients and domestic animals (pets).

Design: Retrospective study of criteria-met ME!CFS patients using a standardized questionnaire which included patient comments.

Setting: University medical center and ME/CFS support groups throughout the United States.

Patients: A total of 127 patients met the surveillance criteria of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) for the establishment of the diagnosis of ME/CFS and were included in the study.

Measurements: Information from the standardized questionnaire was compiled and appropriate statistical tests, including mean, median, Z test, multivariant analysis, and Chi-square test, were used. This information was compared to national statistical information on animal interaction compiled by the American Veterinary Medicine Association.

Results: The most striking result of the study was the association between ME/CFS patients and animals (usually indoor pets) and the number of animals per ME/CFS patient. Ninety-seven percent of the ME/CFS patients had animal contact (expected national contact: 57.9%), with only 2 males and 2 females not reporting animal contact. Reported dog ownership/household for ME/CFS males was 9.5 and for ME/CFS females was 7.9 (expected national average: 1.52). Reported cat ownership/household for ME/CFS males was 6.1 and for ME/CFS females was 8.7 (expected national average: 1.95). One hundred and six of the respondents (83.5%) reported that their animals (pets) had atypical diseases with symptoms which mimicked ME/CFS in humans. Of the 106 ME/CFS patients, 100 (94.3%) either were the primary caregiver for the sick animals or had intimate contact (sleeping with, being bitten or scratched by, or kissing the animal).

Conclusions: ME/CFS patients have a significant animal interaction and a large number of these animals have atypical or unusual diseases which at least mimic ME/CFS.

KEYWORDS. PETS, viral disease

INTRODUCTION

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) is a disease complex which was first defined in 1988, but may have been recognized under other names for a number of years (1). The disease process has multiple manifestations, however, the hallmark symptom is that of fatigue, allowing only 50% of daily activity. The fatigue must last in excess of six months. Other symptoms which are common include behavioral changes (depression and cognitive disorders being the most common), lymphadenopathy, pharyngitis, myalgia and muscle weakness, arthralgia, body temperature changes (both hypothermia and hyperthermia), and an array of immune competency changes (including none at all) (2,3). While this definition was debated in a 1992 NIH Conference, the consensus of the Workshop was to retain the 1988 definition (4).

Anecdotal reports have often linked domestic animals with ME! CFS, but no formal scientific studies have been reported (5,6). Specifically, cats and dogs have been implicated by their owners. The usual association has been the presence of the animal in the household of ME/CFS patients followed by strange diseases in the animal, many of which mimic ME!CFS. The symptoms in the animals have often necessitated euthanasia. Both dogs and cats are known to be susceptible to a wide range of viruses, but with the exception of rabies, no zooriotic viral infection has been demonstrated between these typical domestic animals and humans (7).

Recent observations from our animal biopsy service have demonstrated two interesting findings in animals of ME/CFS patients (unpublished data). Gingival biopsies from cats have demonstrated an unusual epithelial viral vesicle associated with an equally unusual submucosal inflammatory response. Several melanomas have been found in dogs of ME/CFS patients with the unique feature of a striking progression of the tumor in the absence of an inflammatory response.

[ Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: mailto:getinfo@haworthpressinc.com .]

________________________________

R. Tom Glass is Professor of Pathology and Director of the Graduate Program in Forensic Sciences, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Oklahoma State University, and Professor Emeritus of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center.
Address correspondence to: Dr. R. Tom Glass, College of Osteopathic Medicine, Oklahoma State University, 1111 West 17th Street, Tulsa, OK 74107-1898.
Research funded by: The J. Dean Robertson Society, University of Oklahoma, Grant C5185801.

Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 6(2) 2000
© 2000 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Posted to Co-Cure Mon, 31 Jul 2000 19:10:54 -0400 by Fred Springfield

Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome
[a review of the literature]

Fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, and myofascial pain syndrome. [A review of the literature.]
Curr Opin Rheumatol 2000 Mar;12(2):113-23
Buskila D
Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Faculty of Health Sciences, Soroka Medical Center, Beer Sheva, Israel.
PMID: 10751014, UI: 20213066

Fibromyalgia and widespread pain were common in Gulf War veterans with unexplained illness referred to a rheumatology clinic. Increased tenderness was demonstrated in the postmenstrual phase of the cycle compared with the intermenstrual phase in normally cycling women but not in users of oral contraceptives. Patients with fibromyalgia had high levels of symptoms that have been used to define silicone implant-associated syndrome. Tender points were found to be a common transient finding associated with acute infectious mononucleosis, but fibromyalgia was an unusual long-term outcome. The common association of fibromyalgia with other rheumatic and systemic illnesses was further explored. A preliminary study revealed a possible linkage of fibromyalgia to the HLA region. Patients with fibromyalgia were found to have an impaired ability to activate the hypothalamic pituitary portion of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis as well as the sympathoadrenal system, leading to reduced corticotropin and epinephrine response to hypoglycemia. Much interest has been expressed in the literature on the possible role of autonomic dysfunction in the development or exacerbation of fatigue and other symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome. Mycoplasma genus and mycoplasma fermentans were detected by polymerase chain reaction in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. It was reported that myofascial temporomandibular disorder does not run in families. No major therapeutic trials in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, or myofascial pain syndrome were reported over the past year. The effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy and behavior therapy for chronic pain in adults was emphasized. A favorable outcome of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome in children and adolescents was reported.

Publication Types:
Review
Review, tutorial

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Posted to Co-Cure Mon, 31 Jul 2000 02:18:21 -0700 by Melissa O'Toole

Blood parameters indicative of oxidative stress are associated with symptom expression in CFS

Blood parameters indicative of oxidative stress are associated with symptom expression in chronic fatigue syndrome.
Redox Rep 2000;5(1):35-41
Richards RS, Roberts TK, McGregor NR, Dunstan RH, Butt HL
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Newcastle, Australia.
PMID: 10905542, UI: 20361477

Abstract:
Full blood counts, ESR, CRP, haematinics and markers for oxidative stress were measured for 33 patients diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and 27 age and sex matched controls. All participants also completed symptom questionnaires.

CFS patients had increases in malondialdehyde (P <0.006), methaemoglobin (P <0.02), mean erythrocyte volume (P <0.02) and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (P <0.04) compared with controls. Multiple regression analysis found methaemoglobin to be the principal component that differentiated between CFS patients and control subjects.

Methaemoglobin was found to be the major component associated with variation in symptom expression in CFS patients (R(2) = 0.99, P <0.00001), which included fatigue, musculoskeletal symptoms, pain and sleep disturbance. Variation in levels of malondialdehyde and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate were associated with variations in cognitive symptoms and sleep disturbance (R(2) = 0.99, P <0.00001).

These data suggest that oxidative stress due to excess free radical formation is a contributor to the pathology of CFS and was associated with symptom presentation.

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Posted to Co-Cure Mon, 31 Jul 2000 05:20:15 +0200 by Viveka Salomon

Lupus patients with fatigue-is there a link with fibromyalgia syndrome?

Lupus patients with fatigue-is there a link with fibromyalgia syndrome?
Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000 Jun;39(6):620-623
Taylor J, Skan J, Erb N, Carruthers D, Bowman S, Gordon C, Isenberg D
Centre for Rheumatology/Department of Medicine, University College London, London W1P 9PG and. Department of Rheumatology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK.
PMID: 10888706

The objective of this study was to determine whether Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) was more common in patients with lupus who were complaining of fatigue.

216 patients who fulfilled the ACR criteria for lupus attending lupus clinics were interviewed and examined to determine whether they fulfilled the ACR criteria for FMS and for the presence of fatigue.

The results show 50% of lupus patients in the present study complained of fatigue, and 10% fulfilled criteria for FMS.

FMS did not correlate with any measure of disease activity although patients with FMS had lower mean DNA antibody titres and mean SLICC/ACR damage scores.

The authors conclude other factors leading to fatigue should be considered, since only a small percentage of lupus patients in the study fulfilled ACR criteria for FMS

Abstract

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Posted to Co-Cure Mon, 31 Jul 2000 05:47:09 +0200 by Viveka Salomon

Joint hypermobility misdiagnosed as primary fibromyalgia

Joint hypermobility and primary fibromyalgia: a clinical enigma.
J Rheumatol 2000 Jul;27(7):1774-6
Karaaslan Y, Haznedaroglu S, Ozturk M
Department of Rheumatology, Fatih University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
PMID: 10914866, UI: 20370550

In this study the authors conclude some patients who have clinical symptoms of FMS but do not exactly meet the ACR criteria could in fact have JH, and these patients may be misdiagnosed as having FM. Widespread pain is associated with JH in women under age 50, with some of them fulfilling ACR tender point criteria for FM.

Abstract

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Posted to Co-Cure Mon, 31 Jul 2000 05:42:35 +0200 by Viveka Salomon

Findings indicate that fibromyalgia is one of the causes of TMD

Presence of orofacial pain and temporomandibular disorder in Fibromyalgia. A study by questionnaire.
Swed Dent J 1999;23(5-6):185-92
Hedenberg-Magnusson B, Ernberg M, Kopp S
Department of Clinical Oral Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Sweden.
PMID: 10901602, UI: 20356780

The objective of this study was to evaluate subjective symptoms from the temporomandibular system in patients with fibromyalgia.

Patients were submitted a questionnaire about symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The participants reported frequent and severe symptoms of TMD. There was a significant positive correlation between the two conditions. Fibromyalgia is thus a probable cause of TMD according to this study.

The authors conclude that patients with fibromyalgia often suffer from symptoms of TMD, and that the intensity of the pain is correlated to general body pain. According to this study, these findings indicate that fibromyalgia is one of the causes of TMD.

Abstract

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Posted to Co-Cure Sat, 29 Jul 2000 21:02:12 -0700 by Melissa O'Toole

Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Case-Control Study

Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Case-Control Study.
Clin Infect Dis 2000 Jul;31(1):48-52
Reeves WC, Stamey FR, Black JB, Mawle AC, Stewart JA, Pellett PE
Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, 30333, USA.
E-Mail: wcr1@cdc.gov.
PMID: 10913395

Abstract:
We conducted this study to determine whether infection with human herpesvirus (HHV) 6A, HHV-6B, or HHV-7 differed between patients with chronic fatigue syndrome and control subjects.

We recruited 26 patients and 52 nonfatigued matched control subjects from Atlanta. Serum samples were tested by enzyme immunoassay for seroreactivity to HHV-6, and all were seropositive. Lymphocyte specimens were cocultivated with cord blood lymphocytes and assayed for HHV-6 and HHV-7; neither virus was isolated. Finally, lymphocytes were tested by use of 3 polymerase chain reaction methods for HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7 DNA.

HHV-6A or HHV-6B DNA was detected in 17 (22.4%) of 76 samples, and there were no significant differences (by matched analyses) between patients (3 [11.5%] of 26) and control subjects (14 [28%] of 50). HHV-7 DNA was detected in 14 subjects, and although control subjects (12 [24%]) were more likely than patients (2 [7.7%]) to be positive, the difference was not statistically significant.

We found no evidence that active or latent infection with HHV-6A, HHV-6B, HHV-7, or any combination these 3 HHVs is associated with chronic fatigue syndrome.

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Posted to Co-Cure Sat, 29 Jul 2000 00:53:48 -0400 by Fred Springfield

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Evidence Supporting the Hypothesis of a Behaviorally-Activated Neuromodulator of Fatigue

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Evidence Supporting the Hypothesis of a Behaviorally-Activated Neuromodulator of Fatigue
Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 6 No. 2, 2000, pp. 45-63
Barry E. Hurwitz, PhD; Kimberly A. Brownley, PhD; Mary Ann Fletcher, PhD; Nancy G. Klimas, MD

ABSTRACT. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) is a disorder characterized by a prolonged, debilitating fatigue of unknown etiology. In addition, patients with CFS frequently report enhanced fatigue symptoms following even mild physical exertion, and their tolerance for physical exercise is limited relative to healthy individuals. The physiological mechanisms underlying the excessive fatigue and weakness common to this disorder remain an issue of scientific debate. Collectively, the available data suggest that fatigue in CFS is not due to any neuromuscular dysfunction, per Se, but possibly is caused or influenced by some centrally acting mediator that is released during behavioral activities that require physical or mental exertion. In addition to persistent fatigue, there is growing evidence that many CFS patients exhibit alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and autonomic function, including the inability to maintain the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

When an individual engages in mental or physical behavioral activation, there is a release of numerous centrally acting neuromodulators, some of which have been postulated to influence fatigue. This paper examines the evidence supporting a common pathway through which these centrally-mediated psychological and autonomic abnormalities may be linked. It is hypothesized that as a consequence of behavioral activation there is an abnormality in neuromodulator release or action in individuals with CFS, and that this abnormal neuromodulator activity results in increased fatigue. Furthermore, it is postulated that the CNS initiates a counter-regulatory mechanism to reduce the activity of those systems responsible for the production of the neuromodulator; and that the consequence of this counter-regulatory maneuver is the prevailing dysregulation of the autonomic and HPA axes and other dysfunctional cardiovascular and immunological sequelae.

[ Article copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-342-9678. E-mail address: mailto:getinfo@haworthpressinc.com .]

Full text of article

KEYWORDS. Chronic fatigue syndrome, immune, cardiovascular, autonomic, cytokine, neuromodulator, adrenal

Barry E. Hurwitz, Kimberly A. Brownley, Mary Ann Fletcher, and Nancy G. Klimas are affiliated with the Behavioral Medicine Research Center, Departments of Psychology and Medicine, University of Miami.

Address correspondence to: Barry E. Hurwitz, PhD, Department of Psychology, University of Miami, P.O. Box 248185, Coral Gables, FL 33214 (E-mail: Bhurwitz@miami.edu ).

This research was supported by a NIMH training grant (T32-MH18917) and a NAAIDC center grant (U19-A145940).

Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Vol. 6(2) 2000
© 2000 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.

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Posted to Co-Cure Fri, 28 Jul 2000 00:57:56 -0400 by Drew Martin

Abnormal neuropsychological findings are not necessarily a sign of cerebral impairment: a matched comparison between CFS and MS

Abnormal neuropsychological findings are not necessarily a sign of cerebral impairment: a matched comparison between chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis.
Neuropsychiatry Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 2000 Jul;13(3):199-203
van der Werf SP, Prins JB, Jongen PJ, van der Meer JW, Bleijenberg G
Department of Medical Psychology, University Hospital Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the potential impact of effort in comparative studies assessing neurocognitive dysfunction in patients with and without a neurologic diagnosis.

BACKGROUND: It was hypothesized that a subgroup within a group of patients with prominent neurocognitive complaints but without a neurologic diagnosis would have impaired performance on a task originally designed to detect malingering.

METHOD: We compared the neuropsychological performance of a group of 40 patients with a definite diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) with that of 67 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The Amsterdam Short-Term Memory Test, a forced-choice memory task, served as measure to detect submaximal effort. In addition, we administered a regular neuropsychological task generally considered to be sensitive for cognitive deterioration.

RESULTS: Compared with the MS group (13%), a larger proportion of the matched CFS group (30%) obtained scores indicative of reduced effort. In contrast, the proportions of patients scoring below the cutoff value on a conventional neuropsychological test did not differ significantly (17% of MS patients and 16% of CFS patients).

CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained raise the question of to what extent abnormal test findings in the absence of documented neurologic impairment should be interpreted as a sign of cerebral impairment. The suggestion has been made to screen more often for biased results in comparative research studies so as to enhance valid interpretation of neuropsychological findings.

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Note: All abstract summaries, unless otherwise noted, were prepared by Margaret Bailey.


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